This post is a definition of the phrase Aiming for Obscurity, for reference purposes.
In brief, the term refers to authors who do not publish in open access journals or self-archive their works, as well as journals and publishers that are not adjusting to the open access environment.
There is a substantial body of evidence that open access articles are more likely to be cited (see Steve Hitchcock's The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies.
Therefore, authors who continue to publish in toll-access journals and do not self-archive can be said to be aiming for obscurity. In other words, an author in this position is pursuing a course of action which is very likely to decrease the probably of the author's work being read and cited.
It is logical to apply the same concept to journals and publishers that are not adjusting to the open access environment. For example, a journal that does not permit authors to self-archive, or a journal that refuses to publish articles funded by any of the large and growing number of research funding agencies that require open access, or universities or faculty with open access policies (e.g. Harvard, and, in the near future, all of the universities in Europe). Refusing to publish quality research articles would appear to be a business strategy likely to lead the journal or publisher to obscurity.
The term aiming for obscurity is inspired by Jim Till's wonderful blog, Be Openly Accessible, or Be Obscure.